Our vision

Transgender Europe envisions a Europe free from discrimination, where each person can live according to their gender identity and gender expression without interference and where trans people and their families are respected and valued.

Our mission

TGEU works for the equality of all trans people in Europe.

  • We give trans people a voice in Europe
  • We advocate for trans people’s human rights
  • We raise awareness on issues trans people are facing
  • We support a strong trans movement
  • We conduct and encourage research for the benefit of trans people
  • We are an active part of the international trans movement

Our history

TGEU was established on the first European Transgender Council in Vienna in November 2005 and formally registered as an Austrian charitable organisation 14 months later. Run as a volunteer organisation for many years TGEU established itself as legitimate voice of the trans community in Europe.

In 2008 we acquired our first independent project based funding, however it took until 2009 to hire first project staff (to implement the TvT project). In 2012 the General Assembly held in Dublin decided to move the seat of the organisation to Berlin, a process that was finalized with the closing of the Austrian association at the General Assembly held in Budapest in 2014.

Today, TGEU has an office in Berlin, ten members of staff and a Steering Committee of nine volunteers governing the organisation. We successfully continue to combine advocacy work on the European level with work on the national level in partnership with our members with and for local communities.

Governance

Executive Board 2016-2018

ArjaVoipio

Arja Voipio

TGEU Co-Chair

Arja Voipio, based in Finland, joined TGEU’s Steering Committee as Treasurer in 2012 and became Co-Chair in 2014. Arja holds an M.Sc. in Economics and Business Administration. In her professional life she works in the public sector. She has been active in the trans and LGBTI movements in Finland for a number of years. She has served e.g. as the vice-chair of Trasek, the chair of Heseta and the chair of the trans-working group of Seta. All these Finnish human rights NGOs are member organisations of TGEU.

    Recher_Alecs_A

    Alecs Recher

    TGEU Co-Chair

    Alecs Recher, born in 1975 and based in Switzerland, joined TGEU’s Steering Committee as Secretary in 2012 and became Co-Chair in 2014. Alecs holds a Diploma in Remedial Education and Social Pedagogy and a Master’s Degree in Law. In his professional life, he works as a legal researcher for the Swiss Centre of Expertise in Human Rights. As an activist, he was engaged in gay rights on a national level before he founded the Swiss trans organisation Transgender Network Switzerland (TGNS). Today, he’s the head of the TGNS free legal advice centre. From 2004 to 2014, Alecs was an elected Member of Parliament in the City of Zurich.

      tina-web

      Tina Orban

      TGEU Treasurer

      Krisztina Kolos Orban, born in 1976 and based in Hungary, joined TGEU’s Steering Committee as Treasurer in 2014. Krisztina Kolos has been active in the LGBT movement on the national level since 2005 before the founding of Transvanilla Transgender Association in 2011. Krisztina Kolos is serving as one of the vice presidents of Transvanilla, the only active NGO focusing only on trans issues in Hungary.

        Ari

        Arian Kajtezović

        TGEU Secretary

        Arian Kajtezović was born in 1986 in Croatia, and holds a teaching degree in mathematics and physics, as well as a magisterial degree in computer science and mathematics. Arian spent many years of his life living in Canada and Bosnia and Herzegovina before moving back to Croatia in 2010, where he has been actively working on advancing trans* rights since 2011, being involved in the founding of Trans Aid in early 2012. He is currently one of three Co-chairs of Trans Aid. Arian has been on TGEU's Steering Committee since 2013 and became the Secretary in 2014. He aspires to dedicate much of his life working to achieve and ensure the highest standards of human rights for persons of all gender identities and gender expressions.

          Steering Committee Members 2016-2018

          clemence

          Clémence Zamora-Cruz

          Clémence Zamora-Cruz, member of the Steering Committee since 2015, is a transfeminist activist of Mexican origin and French nationality. She has worked for many years for the rights of the LGBTI community in France. She worked as a radio presenter for a few years on the report “Clemence in Wonderland” within the program “Sid’Aventures”, fighting against transphobia and denouncing the discrimination that the LGBTI community suffers in France. She was Vice President of the Les Myriades Trans Association. Clémence acts as co-president of Acceptess-T, spokeswoman and trans officer for Inter-LGBT, and is active in the Paris International Tournament. In her professional work, Clémence is a teacher.

            portrett Stein Wolff Frydenlund

            Stein Wolff Frydenlund

            Stein Wolff Frydenlund, born in 1957 in Norway, joined the TGEU Steering Committee in 2014. Stein holds a Master’s degree in administration and organisation theory. In his professional life, he works as a lecturer in social sciences and the Norwegian language. As an activist, he was engaged in LGBT rights on a regional level for many years. He is also a member of the Amnesty International LGBTI network, both in Norway and at the international level. Today he is the head of the trans political committee of the Norwegian LGBT organisation – LLH.

              vreer

              Vreer Verkerke

              J. Vreer Verkerke ("vreer" roughly translates to "mixter") is on board of TGEU's Steering Committee since 2012. Nationally they started out helping a trans support group in the 1990s, founded a semi-support, semi-action group (Noodles) in 2001, co-founded Transgender Netwerk Nederland in the following years and were TNN's first advocacy officer. In their daily work, they is doing (LGB)TI related human rights education and advocacy, among others through trainings and lectures. Since 2012, they focus strongly on depathologising trans* health care and forms part of GATE's ICD expert working group. With Principle 17 (after the Yogyakarta principle on the right to health) they intervene in the Dutch trans* health politics in order to finally have respectful and quality trans* specific health care.

                nicoledeleo

                Nicole De Leo

                Nicole De Leo, lives in Bologna, and was born in 1958 in Italy. She graduated from the the Duse Studio Performing School in Rome, and in her professional life she works as an actress.

                Nicole was elected to the TGEU Steering Committee at the Council in Bologna in June 2016, and had been a participant at the Vienna & Malmö councils on behalf of M.I.T (Movimento Identità Transessuale) where she developed her experiencce in trans activism.

                As an activist Nicole has been carrying out mediation as a peer-educator on a project with sex-workers, with a particular study which collects data of in-door sex-work. She also takes care of counseling inside M.I.T. in regards to health-care, access to work and with particular attention to surgical issues.

                She was involved in Cultural and artistic experiences such as organization of  DIVERGENTI Transgender Film Festival in Bologna, performances, and readings connected to promote a different image of transsexual/transgender reality.

                Nicole can speak Italian, English, French, and German.

                  Untitled design

                  Ulrika Westerlund

                  Ulrika Westerlund was born in 1972 in Stockholm, where she still lives. She was the president of RFSL, The Swedish federation of LGBTQ rights 2010-2016, where she focused on trans*rights, rights for asylum seeking LGBTQ people and family politics. For example Ulrika worked to remove the forced sterilization as a requirement for legal gender recognition in Sweden (law change in 2013), improved parental rights for trans*people and improved access to gender reaffirming health care. She has also been involved in the Advocacy Network of ILGA Europe.

                  Ulrika is also on the board of the Swedish section of Amnesty International, and she is a member of the European Economic and Social Committee.

                  Ulrika has a bachelor's degree in humanities, as well as a degree in journalism. She has worked for example as a freelance journalist, editor of a feminist magazine, project manager of an LGBTQ project at the public authority Living History Forum and as a secretary to a public investigation committee on diversity in the cultural sector.

                    Previous Steering Committees

                    Team

                    julia

                    Julia Ehrt

                    Executive Director

                    Julia has been involved in trans activism for more than 10 years. She has considerably shaped TGEU’s advocacy work, policy and organisational strategy. She has actively developed many contacts with decision makers and other stakeholders in the EU, the CoE and other governmental and non governmental organizations. She has represented TGEU and trans interests on numerous conferences and meetings.

                    Julia has been involved in TGEU since the beginning in 2005 and contributed to the development of the organization as Steering Committee member, Vice- and Co-chair. During this period she has gained experience in chairing and leading an organization like TGEU.

                    She holds a PhD in mathematics and lives with her partner and daughter in Berlin.

                    rk_by_Anja_Weber_small

                    Richard Köhler

                    Senior Policy Officer; Deputy Executive Director

                    Richard Köhler oversees TGEUs policy and advocacy work at the European level. He regularly speaks at institutions of the European Union and the Council of Europe on a number of occasions, such as the historic meeting of Human Rights Commissioner’s trans expert meeting in 2008. He has been a sought expert on trans equality in Europe by policy makers and trans activists alike. Richard served as member in the interim board of EPATH - the European Professional Association for Transgender Health Care and of the German Equality Body's independent expert committee on gender. Richard is co-author of the Best Practice Catalogue Human Rights and Gender Identity and the toolkit "Legal Gender Recognition in Europe.

                    He has been a trans activist within the European Transgender movement for more than a decade. As member of the steering committee of TGEU (2007-2010) he has continuously initiated change to develop the structure and policy of TGEU drawing from his wide experience in international project management and NGO consultancy. Richard has been vital to the organization of European Transgender Councils and trainings for the trans community.

                    Previously, he managed projects supporting minority groups in the former Soviet Union with ILGA-Europe and German Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit – GiZ. He has a background in International Business Administration with specialization on NGOs in Russian-speaking countries. Richard speaks English, French, German and Russian and lives in Berlin.

                    Carla-TGEU1

                    Carla LaGata/Carsten Balzer

                    Senior Researcher/Lead Researcher of the TvT project

                    Carla has been active in several social movements since the mid-1980s. Since the late 1990s s_he combined social activism with academic work focussing on trans activism. S_he holds a Ph.D. and an M.A. in Cultural Anthropology from the Free University of Berlin, wrote hir Ph.D. thesis on gender-variant/trans communities in Brazil, Germany and the United States, taught Cultural Anthropology and Latin American Studies at the Free University of Berlin; hir work has been published in numerous journals and edited volumes in the U.S., Brazil, Germany, Spain and the UK. S_he is a founding member of the Transgender Network Berlin and chairperson of its Scientific Advisory Board, founding member of the online journal Liminalis – Journal for Sex/Gender Emancipation and Resistance and Editorial Board member of the academic journal Transgender Studies Quarterly (TSQ). Carla supported TGEU from its very beginnings in 2005 and served as a TGEU Steering Committee member from 2008 to 2012. In 2009 s_he initiated TGEU’s Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide (TvT) research project. S_he is co-author of Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide – A Comparative Review of the Human-rights Situation of Gender-variant/Trans People. Hir responsibilities within TGEU are research (with focus on the TvT project) and international relations outside Europe. Carla speaks English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, and French.

                      moritz_g_birgit_meixner__

                      Moritz Sander

                      Senior Financial Officer

                      Moritz has been an active member of the Berlin transgender community for over ten years. He is a member of the Kingz of Berlin and former chairman of Wigstöckel – Transgender United! and has been a delegate to the Transgender Network Berlin for both organizations. He has organized and hosted shows/events and initiated workshops, talks and networking. Moritz has also worked as an assistant director for two German theatre companies and as a volunteer for an international student exchange program. Before joining the TGEU-team Moritz was employed as a management assistant in a consultancy/research institute.

                      Moritz supports and develops the administration of TGEU.

                        Boglarka_Fedorko

                        Boglarka Fedorko

                        Project Manager

                        Boglarka joined TGEU in February 2014 as the project manager of the ProTrans project, aiming to better protect trans people and their communities in Europe against violence and impunity.

                        She is an archaeologist and economist by training, who is passionate about human rights and has been active in diverse fields, such as international education inclusion projects, Roma rights advocacy and sex worker empowerment. Prior to working at TGEU, she has developed and managed projects at the Open Society Foundations and various grassroots organisations in Hungary. She has experience in advocacy, training delivery and capacity-building work at national, European and UN levels, including on gender-based violence, HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive rights and decriminalisation of sex work.

                        Noah-small

                        Noah Keuzenkamp

                        Capacity Building Officer

                        Noah is in charge of TGEU’s capacity building work, and he provides support to TGEU member organisations, especially in their national advocacy and policy and their community building work. He joined TGEU in March 2014.

                        Noah has been involved in trans and LGBT activism for the past seven years. Before joining TGEU, he worked, among others, for ARC International in Geneva, for the feminist human rights organisation CREA in New Delhi, for UNAIDS in Colombo and for local LGBT organisations in the UK, tackling transphobia and homophobia in education. He has experience in advocacy, policy and capacity building work at UN, national and local levels, including on UN advocacy, sex workers’ rights, HIV/AIDS, and decriminalisation of homosexuality.

                        Noah holds an MPhil in Politics & Education from the University of Cambridge.

                        TGE_0181 (4)

                        Adam Smiley

                        Health Officer

                        Adam has been involved in LGBTI projects since the 1990s. He joined TGEU in November 2015 as Health Officer to focus on promoting strategies to improve the physical and mental health of trans people across Europe. After having obtained his BA in languages in the USA, Adam moved to Germany, where he has lived for more than 20 years. He has worked extensively in various fields, including intercultural school exchange, government administration, international journalism and economic development. In addition Adam holds a master’s degree in public health (MPH).

                        lukas

                        Lukas Berredo

                        Born and raised in Brazil, Lukas has lived seven years in Chile, two years in China, and is now based in Berlin, Germany. He has been a sexual and gender diversity advocate and educator since 2007. In Chile, he founded the Support Group for Transmen, and soon became a board member of Movement for Sexual Diversity. In China, he started the student organization Diversity and co-founded TRANScending Borders.

                        Lukas has a BA in "Social Communication", a diploma in "World Politics", a Master’s Degree in "International Relations and World History" from The University of Nottingham Ningbo China, and a Graduate Certificate in "LGBT Health Policy & Practice" from the George Washington University.

                        As Transrespect Officer, Lukas supports the implementation of TGEU's work on a global level, in particular in the framework of the Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide (TvT) research project.

                        Lukas speaks English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

                        Catie

                        Catie Carr

                        Operations Officer

                        Catie joined TGEU in November 2015 as the Operations Officer. After completing a double major in Russian Studies and Environmental Biology at Colgate University, she worked with various non-profit organisations aimed at promoting international cooperation, social justice, and human rights. As Operations Officer, Catie is responsible for coordinating TGEU membership, as well as supporting the financial and administrative duties of the office.

                        Catie speaks English and German.

                          minanew

                          Mina Tolu

                          Communications Officer

                          Mina has gained LGBTQ activism experience for the past 5 years through their work for We Are – the LGBTQI Youth & Student Organisation in Malta, and as a board member of IGLYO - the International LGBTQ Youth and Student Organisation. After completing studies in communications they spent some time coordinating a national referendum campaign for an environmental NGO in Malta.

                          Mina speaks English, Italian, and Maltese.

                          naomhan intern

                          Naomhán O’Connor

                          Communications Intern

                          Naomhán has been involved in trans and queer activism for the past 5 years. Primarily based in Northern Ireland, they founded the peer support group Non-Binary+ Northern Ireland and are also involved with TransForum NI, a collaborative group of trans activists lobbying statutory bodies in Northern Ireland for trans inclusivity in policy and law. They work with the Transgender Equality Network of Ireland (TENI) on non-binary inclusivity and currently they are challenging the Irish Gender Recognition Act to recognise their gender identity legally as non-binary with an X gender marker.

                          Naomhán also works as a video editor and social media/website manager and they are involved with Outburst Queer Arts Festival in Belfast, running trans-inclusive and DIY events as well as hosting workshops on filmmaking and vlogging. They are actively involved with the Belfast circus community, drawing on queer performance art to create performance pieces on aerial rope, silks and trapeze.

                          Naomhán is interning with TGEU until end Dec 2016.

                           

                          Documents

                          Find here TGEU statutes, activity reports, strategic plan and policies and a fact sheet.

                          Members

                          Transgender Europe is a membership based organisation. TGEU currently has 105 member organisations in 42 different countries (September 2016).

                          Click here if you are interested in becoming a member.

                          members-g105-map

                           

                          Albania

                          PINK Embassy / LGBT Pro Albania pinkembassy.al icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Armenia

                          “Bekum” Democracy Support Center lgbtnews.am 

                          Right Side NGO rightsidengo.com icon-fb-over

                          We for Civil Equality wfce.am

                          Austria

                          TransX transx.at

                          Belgium

                          çavaria cavaria.be icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Genres Pluriels genrespluriels.be icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Transgender Infopunt transinfo.be icon-fb-over

                          RainbowHouse Brussels rainbowhouse.be icon-fb-over

                          Bulgaria

                          Bilitis Resource Center Foundation bilitis.org icon-fb-over

                          Croatia

                          Trans Aid Croatia transaid.hr icon-fb-over

                          Cyprus

                          ACCEPT-LGBT Cyprus acceptcy.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Envision Diversity

                          Queer Cyprus Association icon-fb-over

                          Czech Republic

                          TransFusion,z.s. trans-fusion.org icon-fb-over

                          TRANS*PARENT transparentprague.cz icon-fb-over

                          Denmark

                          LGBT Denmark lgbt.dk icon-fb-over

                          Transpolitisk Forum icon-fb-over

                          Finland

                          DreamwearClub ry dreamwearclub.net

                          HeSeta heseta.fi icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Sateenkaariperheet – Regnbågsfamiljer ry sateenkaariperheet.fi icon-fb-over

                          Seta ry seta.fi icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          TransAmbassadors Finland transambassadors.org  icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Trasek ry trasek.net icon-fb-over

                          France

                          Espace Santé Trans

                          HES Homosexualités & Socialisme hes-france.org   icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Acceptess Transgenres icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Georgia

                          Women’s Initiatives Supporting Group  women.ge, minority.ge, lesbi.org.ge icon-fb-over

                          Germany

                          Deutsche Gesellschaft für Transidentität und Intersexualität e.V. dgti.org

                          Federal Working Group Inter Trans of the United Services Trade Union ver.di regenbogen.verdi.de

                          HXM Hanse-X-Men hansexmen.de

                          Schwulenberatung Berlin gGmbH schwulenberatungberlin.de

                          TGNB tgnb.de

                          TransInterQueer e.V. transinterqueer.org icon-fb-over

                          Trans Recht e.V. – Solinetz Bremen und Umzu trans-recht.de

                          German Federal Transorganisation bv-trans.de icon-fb-over

                          Greece

                          Greek LGBT PwD icon-fb-over

                          Greek Transgender Support Association transgender-association.gr icon-fb-over

                          Colour Youth – Athens LGBTQ Youth Community colouryouth.gr icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Hungary

                          Háttér Society hatter.hu icon-fb-over

                          Transvanilla Transgender Association transvanilla.hu icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Iceland

                          Trans-Iceland trans.samtokin78.is icon-fb-over

                          Ireland

                          BeLonGTo Youth Service belongto.org  icon-fb-over  icon-twitter-over

                          Transgender Equality Network Ireland teni.ie icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Israel

                          Hoshen hoshen.org icon-fb-over

                          Italy

                          Arcigay, Italian LGBT Association arcigay.it  icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          MIT mit-italia.it icon-fb-over

                          Kazakhstan

                          Human Health Institute hhikz.com icon-fb-over

                          Kyrgyzstan

                          Labrys labrys.kg icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Lithuania

                          Association Lithuanian Gay League lgl.lt icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Luxembourg

                          Intersex & Transgender Luxembourg asbl itgl.lu icon-fb-over

                          Rosa Lëtzebuerg asbl. rosa-letzebuerg.lu icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Macedonia

                          LGBT United Tetovo lgbtunited.org icon-fb-over

                          Malta

                          Malta Gay Rights Movement maltagayrights.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Montenegro

                          LGBT Forum Progress lgbtprogres.me icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Queer Montenegro queermontenegro.org icon-fb-over

                          Netherlands

                          Transgender Netwerk Nederland transgendernetwerk.nl icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Transman.nl transman.nl icon-twitter-over

                          TransMotion Foundation transcreen.org icon-fb-over

                          Norway

                          Association of Transgendered People in Norway ftpn.no

                          The Norwegian Organization for Sexual and Gender Diversity foreningenfri.no icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          The Norwegian Organization for Sexual and Gender Diversity in Oslo and Akershus foreningenfri.no/llh-oslo-og-akershus

                          Queer Youth Norway skeivungdom.no icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Poland

                          Trans-Fuzja Foundation transfuzja.org icon-fb-over

                          Portugal

                          Association for Identity https://apidentidade.wordpress.com icon-fb-over

                          GRIT – Group of Reflection and Intervention about Transexuality ilga-portugal.pt icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Romania

                          ACCEPT Association accept-romania.ro icon-fb-over

                          TRANSform icon-fb-over

                          Russia

                          Russian LGBT Network lgbtnet.ru

                          Social Project for Transgender People “LAVERNA”

                          Transgender Legal Defense Project pravo-trans.eu icon-fb-over

                          “Coming Out” LGBT Initiative Group icon-fb-over

                          Serbia

                          Center for promotion of LGBTIQ rights, GAYTEN-LGBT transserbia.org icon-fb-over

                          ERA – LGBTI Equal Rights Association for the Western Balkans and Turkey lgbti-era.org  icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Slovakia

                          TransFúzia transfuzia.org icon-fb-over

                          Slovenia

                          TransAction icon-fb-over

                          Kvartir drustvokvartir.wordpress.com icon-fb-over

                          Cultural, informational and counselling centre Legebitra icon-fb-over

                          Spain

                          Colectibo “LAS TRANS (…)”

                          Col·lectiu Lambda Valencia lambdavalencia.org/es icon-fb-over

                          Daniela Foundation fundaciondaniela.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Fuzzy Sets – Trans Autonomy autonomiatrans.es icon-fb-over

                          Sweden

                          Swedish Youth Federation for LGBTQ Rights rfslungdom.se  icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          The Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights – rfsl.se

                          The Transgender Association FPES fpes.se

                          Trans* Fest Stockholm https://transfeststockholm.org  icon-fb-over

                          Switzerland

                          Agnodice Foundation agnodice.ch

                          Transgender Network Switzerland tgns.ch icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Tajikistan

                          Equal opportunities

                          Turkey

                          Black Pink Triangle Izmir Association siyahpembe.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Counseling Center For Transgender People icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Istanbul LGBTT icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Mersin LGBT 7Renk Association icon-fb-over

                          Pink Life LGBTT Solidarity Association pembehayat.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association kirmizisemsiye.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Social Policies Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Studies Association spod.org.tr icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Ukraine

                          HPLGBT HPLGBT.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over youtube.com/user/HPLGBT

                          Insight insight-ukraine.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          UK

                          Focus:the identity trust thefocustrust.com icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers rmt.org.uk

                          The Metro Centre Limited metrocentreonline.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Scottish Transgender Alliance – Equality Network scottishtrans.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          UK Trans Info uktrans.info

                           Networks

                          The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Youth & Student Organisation iglyo.com icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Network of European LGBT Families Associations nelfa.org icon-fb-over icon-twitter-over

                          Trans* Network Balkan icon-fb-over

                          Post-Soviet Trans Coalition transcoalition.info icon-fb-over

                           

                           

                          Funders & Supporters

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                          US State Department

                          TGEU is grateful for the financial support received from the Rights, Equality & Citizenship Program of the European Union, the Open Society Foundations, the Dutch Government, the Arcus Foundation, the US State Department and the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung. Sole responsibility for contents lays with TGEU and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission, the Open Society Foundations, the Dutch Government, the Arcus Foundation, the US State Department or the Heinrich-Böll-Foundation.